By F. S. Naiden
This can be the 1st book-length therapy of supplication, a tremendous social perform in old Mediterranean civilizations. regardless of the significance of supplication, it has acquired little awareness, and no earlier research has explored such a lot of facets of the perform. Naiden investigates the various gestures made by means of the supplicants, the kinds of requests they make, the arguments utilized in safeguard in their requests, and the function of the supplicandus, who evaluates and makes a decision even if to satisfy the requests. various and plentiful resources invite comparability among the societies of Greece and Rome and in addition between literary genres. also, Naiden formulates an research of the ritual in its felony and political contexts. In developing this wealthy and thorough research, Naiden thought of over 800 acts of supplication from Greek, Hebrew, and Roman literature, paintings, and clinical assets. 30 illustrations and a map of the correct destinations accompany the textual content.
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Extra resources for Ancient Supplication
So does the Roman innovation of providing rights that render supplication superfluous. Yet the Romans also move in the opposite direction, allowing supplication as a way of appealing mistaken verdicts and as a means of rectifying inadequate legislation. The give-and-take between supplication and the law assumes forms that continue in Medieval Europe, as shown by examples found in Gregory the Great and in modern times. A concluding chapter traces this give-and-take in a single example drawn from a 2001 newspaper story.
4 Gilgamesh, Humbaba, and Enkidu, but a less supplicatory pose. Courtesy of Preussischer Kulturbesitz. 89 Missing only is some royal gesture to show that the king has given a pledge. 90 Other surrenders differ from supplication because the king does not allow the defeated to take any initiative. Rather than let them approach, he subdues them; rather than let them fall at his feet, he compels them to lie there, and sometimes places his own foot on their necks. 92 These two kinds of surrenders explain why supplication by the defeated, which surely occurred many times—perhaps as many as in Greece, given Assyrian successes—does not bulk large in the Assyrian records.
The last of these problems underscores the importance of the supplicandus. Chapter 2 next describes the third step, on which literary critics have concentrated their attention. Here generic differences prove more important than they 99. The only instance of Gauls or Germans supplicating one another: Caes. Gal. 3. 9. Bibliography: Much ad Tac. Ger. 1. A different view: Wilutzky, Vorgeschichte, 106– 10, citing medieval sources. A list of all acts reported by Greek and Latin sources but lacking Greek or Roman principals appears in appendix 1e.
Ancient Supplication by F. S. Naiden