By Günther Patzig (auth.)
The current booklet is the English model of a monograph 'Die aristotelische Syllogistik', which first seemed ten years in the past within the sequence of Abhand 1 lungen edited by way of the Academy of Sciences in Gottingen. within the preface to the English version, i might first wish to convey my indebtedness to Mr. J. Barnes, now fellow of Oriel collage, Oxford. He not just translated what should have been a tough textual content with exemplary precision and ingenuity, yet significantly each argument and money ed each reference. whereas translating it, he has more desirable the publication. of these adjustments which i've got made on Mr. Barnes' recommendation I notice in simple terms the extra vital ones on pages four, 12, 24sq, 32, 39, 6lsq, and 158. because the moment version of the German textual content seemed in 1963 a few additional experiences were released, or come to my observe, which i've got 2 been in a position to utilize in bettering the textual content of this re-creation. i need to point out the following particularly the distinctive severe discussions of my effects and arguments released by means of Professor W. Wieland within the Philosophische Rundschau 14 (1966), 1-27 and through Professor E. Scheibe in Gnomon 39 (1967), 454-64. either students, whereas agreeing with the most glide and approach to my interpretation, criticise a few of my effects and disagree with a few of my arguments. it'll no longer be attainable to debate those technical concerns the following with the required thoroughness.
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The current ebook is the English model of a monograph 'Die aristotelische Syllogistik', which first seemed ten years in the past within the sequence of Abhand 1 lungen edited by means of the Academy of Sciences in Gottingen. within the preface to the English variation, i might first prefer to show my indebtedness to Mr. J. Barnes, now fellow of Oriel collage, Oxford.
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Extra resources for Aristotle’s Theory of the Syllogism: A Logico-Philological Study of Book A of the Prior Analytics
The contradiction lies in the last sentence: if we substitute for "as long as" the word "if" (equivalent in this context), and for "It is not possible for a man to become white" the synonymous "Man belongs necessarily to no white", then we are back with the necessity of the proposition "Man belongs to no white", which Aristotle has just expressly rejected. It is not correct to say that man can belong to no white as long as animal belongs to no white. Of course man even then can belong to a white - otherwise it would be quite impossible for any animal to become white (and the second premiss would be, contra hypothesin, 'absolutely' necessary).
And later: "The schema of necessity is the existence of an object at all times" (ib. B 184). The reference to the passages in Aristotle and to the two statements of Kant is not inappropriate in view of the objection often raised against enquiries of this sort, that they measure Aristotle and his logical theories by canons utterly strange to him - canons which 27 ARISTOTLE'S THEORY OF THE SYLLOGISM indeed can only be drawn from the remote province of modern mathematicallogic. We have seen that Aristotle's 'relative' necessity is not the necessity of the conclusion of a valid inference, but the necessary truth of the compound proposition which, at the beginning of the book, we established an Aristotelian syllogism to be.
But it does not fulfill the second condition, since sleep does not belong to man lCae' au'to, by virtue of his definition. g. a term cannot be substituted for the objectvariable x, since the proposition would then be not true but meaningless). 21 In place of the proposition "For all objects x at time t: if x is a man then x is asleep", we can construct the equivalent proposition: "For all objects x: if x is a man and x exists at time t, then x is asleep". In the second of these two 34 LOGICAL NECESSITY propositions the quantifier is genuine; the restriction has been turned into an additional qualification on the antecedent of the implication "If Ax, then Bx".
Aristotle’s Theory of the Syllogism: A Logico-Philological Study of Book A of the Prior Analytics by Günther Patzig (auth.)